The need for automation and robots in most manufacturing industries continues to grow. Industrial robots have replaced human beings in a wide variety of industries. Robots beat humans in jobs that need precision, speed, endurance and reliability. Robots safely perform dirty and dangerous jobs. Traditional manufacturing robotic applications include material handling (pick and put), assembling, painting, welding, packaging, palletizing, product inspection and testing. Industrial robots are utilized within a diverse variety of industries including automotive, electronics, medical, food production, biotech, pharmaceutical and machinery.
The ISO concept of a manipulating industrial robot is “an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator”. Based on the definition it can be fixed available or mobile to use in industrial automation applications. These industrial robots are programmable in several axes. They’re multi-functional devices that could be custom-built and developed to carry out a variety of operations.
The major advantages of industrial robots is because could be programmed to suit industry specific requirements which enable it to work continuously for years, consistently meeting high manufacturing quality standards. The cost-effective lifespan of the industrial robot is roughly 12-16 years. Because of the persistent accuracy industrial robots are becoming a vital portion of manufacturing.
Industrial robots has sorted out into different categories based on their mechanical structure. The most important types of industrial robots are:
Gantry (Cartesian) Robot: These are stationary robots having three aspects of motion. They work from an overhead grid using a rectangular work envelope. These are mainly employed to perform ‘pick and place’ actions. Gantry robots supply their axes across the work which makes them also suitable for dispensing applications.
SCARA Robots: (Selectively Compliant Articulated Robot Arm) These robots have 4 axes of motion. They move within an x-y-z coordinated circular work envelope. They are used for factory automation requiring pick make work, application and assembly operations and handling machine tools.
Articulated robots: An articulated robot has rotary joints. It could have from two to 10 or even more interactive joints. Articulated robots are very well worthy of welding, painting and assembly.
Basic industrial robot designs could be customized with the help of different peripherals. End effectors, optical systems, and motion controllers are very important add-ons. End effectors will be the end-of-arm-tooling (EOAT) attached with robotic arms. Grippers or wrenches which might be utilized to move or assemble parts are types of end effectors. End effectors are designed and employed to sense and communicate with the external environment. The end effectors’ design is determined by the approval requirements with the specific industry. Machine Vision systems are robotic optical systems. These are built-on digital input/output devices and computer networks accustomed to control other manufacturing equipment including robotic arms. Machine vision is used for the inspection of manufactured goods including semiconductor chips. Motion controllers are utilized to move robots and position stages smoothly and accurately with sub-micron repeatability.
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